DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT
It is difficult to define management. In fact no definition of management has been universally accepted. One popular quote is by Mary Porker Follett Management, she says is the “Art of getting things done through people”, this quote calls attention to the fundamental difference between a manager and other personal of an organization. A manager is one who contributes to the organizations goals indirectly by directing the efforts of other- not by performing the task himself. On the other hand, a person who is not a manager makes his contribution to the organizations goals directly by the task himself.
Sometimes, a person however in an organization may play both these roles simultaneously, For example a sales manager is performing a managerial role when he is directing his sales force to meet the organizations goals, But when he himself is connecting a large customer and negotiating a deal, he is performing a non-managerial role, in the former role he is directing the efforts of others and is contributing to the organizations goal indirectly, in the latter role he is directly utilizing his skill as a salesman to meet the organizations objects.
Two weakness of Mary Parker on quote:
• It uses the word “art” in defining management. To say the management is merely an art is to state a half-truth. Art deals with the application of knowledge. Management is not merely application of knowledge. It also involves acquisition of knowledge i.e. science. Management based on rules of thumb or intuition is not correct management.
• This definition does not throw light on the various functions of a manager.
A somewhat more elaborate definition of management is given by George R. Terry. He defines management is a process “consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources”. According to this definition, management is process-a systematic way of doing things. The four management activities included in this process are: planning, organizing, actuating and controlling. Planning means that managers think of their actions in advance. Their actions are usually based on some method, plan or logic, rather than on a hunch. Organizing means that managers coordinate that human and material and material resources of the organization. Actuating means that managers motivate and direct subordinates, controlling means that managers attempt to ensure that there is no deviation from the norm or plan. If some part of their organization is on the wrong track, managers to take action to remedy the situation.
This definition also indicates that managers use people and other resources, such as finance equipment etc. In attaining their goals for example a manager who wishes to increase sales might try not only to motivate the sales force but also to increasing the advertise budget.
Finally, this definition states that management involves the act of achieving the organization’s objectives. These objectives will, of course, vary with each organization. The objective of a hospital might be to provide comprehensive medical care to a community. The objective of a university might be to give students to a well founded education in a congenial environment. Whatever the objects of a particular organization, management is the process by which the objectives are achieved.